tender dating - Emaphrodite in sex

Sparidae is a teleost family with a wide variety of sex mechanisms [].Sparids exhibit either gonochorism or various forms of hermaphroditism, such as simultaneous, sequential or rudimentary hermaphroditism (simultaneous: presence of both male and female gonads; sequential: an individual develops first as a functional male and then changes to female or vice versa; rudimentary: immature individuals carry both male and female immature gonad types and during maturation one of the two types develops fully, determining the sex).

Hermaphroditism, however, is common among teleosts and has evolved repeatedly in different lineages [].

The two sexual systems are sometimes observed even among phylogenetically-close species, suggesting that the molecular pathways involved might not differ dramatically.

A recent study on the ancestral reconstruction of sexual patterns in sparids revealed both gonochorism and hermaphroditism in almost every group of the family [, is a sparid of great importance for the industry of fisheries and aquaculture.

This species is also particularly interesting from an evolutionary point of view, as it has one of the most spectacular reproductive systems; it is rudimentary hermaphrodite with some instances of protandry [, which account for more than 90% of the Sparidae sequences available in Gen Bank.

Most genes involved in primary pathways of sex determination and differentiation in other vertebrates are present also in the sharpsnout seabream; this implies a conservation of pathways between gonochorists and hermaphrodites.

Finally, we constructed a dataset of genes and a resource of genetic markers that will assist future genetic research at the species and family level.].

Tissues for RNA extraction were stored at 4°C overnight and then transferred to -80°C until further processing.

To avoid biases regarding different expression in different parts of the same organ, we homogenized the whole brain and male gonad samples whereas in the case of female gonads, because of their large size (1.2 g - 4.3 g) we excised three different parts of the organ (the posterior, the anterior and the middle tissue) and homogenized it in QIAzol Lysis buffer (QIAGEN).

Teleosts are characterized by a remarkable breadth of sexual mechanisms including various forms of hermaphroditism.

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