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Legal exclusion, augmented by extralegal persecution and anti-Chinese violence, effectively drove the Chinese out of the mines, farms, woolen mills, and factories on the West Coast.

As a result, many Chinese laborers already in the United States lost hope of ever fulfilling their dreams and returned permanently to China.

New York accounts for 16 percent, second only to California, and Hawai'i for 6 percent.

However, other states that have historically received fewer Chinese immigrants have witnessed phenomenal growth, such as Texas, New Jersey, Massachusetts, Illinois, Washington, Florida, Maryland, and Pennsylvania.

That dropped steadily over time, but males still outnumbered females by more than 2:1 by the 1940s.

In much of the pre-World War II era, the Chinese American community was essentially an isolated bachelors' society consisting of a small merchant class and a vast working class of sojourners (temporary immigrants who intended to return home after making money working in the U. After the 1950s, when hundreds of refugees and their families fled Communist China and arrived in the U. and particularly since the enactment of the 1965 Hart-Cellar Act, the ethnic community has experienced unprecedented demographic and social transformation from a bachelors' society to a family community.

Chinatowns in the Northeast, particularly New York, and the mid-West grew to absorb those fleeing the extreme persecution in California.

The gender imbalance for Chinese was nearly 27 males per single female in 1890.

Chinese Americans continue to concentrate in the West and in urban areas.

One state, California, accounts for 40 percent of all Chinese Americans (1.1 million).

Social mobility among Chinese Americans also vary because of tremendous socioeconomic diversity.

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