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130 CE) by Hadrian as the Roman city of Aelia Capitolina.Since this date the local Church has been entirely gentile in composition.The two missions are each led by an archimandrite, who is assisted by a number of monks and nuns.

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The community numbers just over 1,000 members-in Jerusalem, Bethlehem and Nazareth.

The Ethiopian Orthodox Church has had a community in Jerusalem since at least the Middle Ages.

Being in communion with the Greek Orthodox Church, they are under the local jurisdiction of the Greek Orthodox Patriarchate.

The Russian Orthodox mission was established in Jerusalem in 1858, but Russian Christians had begun visiting the Holy Land in the 11th century, only a few years after the Conversion of Kiev.

The Coptic Orthodox Church has its roots in Egypt, where most of the population became Christian during the first centuries. The community flourished during the Mamluk period (1250-1517), and again with Mohammed Ali in 1830.

Since the 13th century the (Coptic) Patriarch of Alexandria has been represented in Jerusalem by a resident archbishop.

The non-Chalcedonian churches hold the Monophysite doctrine that in Christ there was but a single, divine nature.

The Armenian Orthodox Church dates from the year 301 and the conversion of Armenia, the first nation to embrace Christianity.

Historically, this Church developed from the Churches of the East Roman or Byzantine Empire.

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