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We have made note of the generally less favorable equilibrium constant for additions to ketones, but the additions of water, alcohols, amines, cyanide and Grignard reagents all proceed to measurable extents with ketones. To oxidize a ketone would require breaking a carbon-carbon bond between the carbonyl carbon and a carbon bonded to it.
They are present merely to maintain charge balance so that stable compounds can be added to reaction mixtures.
They are often called spectator ions.) The borohydride ion is the important player in this process, and it is the B-H bond that we want to examine.
A quick glance at the periodic table to review electronegativities tells us that both boron and aluminum are metals with relatively low electronegativities.
Each is less electronegative than carbon, and since hydrogen has about the same electronegativity as carbon we can conclude that the B-H bond is polarized with the boron positive and the hydrogen negative.
If we return to the example we had earlier, we are trying to figure out what reagent to add to an aldehyde in order to oxidize it to a carboxylic acid. Experiments have shown that there are many such reagents, but one which is commonly and effectively used for this purpose is chromic acid (H If a question asks for a reagent which will carry out a reaction, it is necessary to answer with a specific reagent.
That means that you will need to develop a personal list of reagents and what they do.
Since there is no carbon-carbon bond breaking which occurs in these reactions, we might expect that these reagents would also reduce ketones to alcohols.
That is indeed the case, as seen in these examples.
If the net change in the number of hydrogens and oxygens comes out to be a ratio of two hydrogens to one oxygen, neither oxidation nor reduction is involved.Tags: Adult Dating, affair dating, sex dating